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They were able to identify characteristic bone changes for each disease, for example, modifications to the shin and tibia particular to syphilis, or routine involvement of hand or foot in yaws but not syphilis or bejel.Researchers were able to trace the mining history of Cerro Rico de Potosi, a major silver deposit in southern Bolivia, by tracking the metal residues that result from smelting in the sediments of a nearby lake, Laguna Lobato. The timing coincides with the waning years of the Tiwanaku Empire, which dominated the Bolivian Andes from about A. "It's not completely unexpected that there was some smelting going on at that time," said Mark Abbott, a geologist at the University of Pittsburgh, and a co-author of the study. By analyzing the accumulation of metals associated with smelting, a heating process used to separate metals, like silver, from ore, they were able to detect spikes in the metal concentrations that are indicative of heavy mining."What is unexpected, I think, is the magnitude; there was a lot going on, and the metal is not accounted for in the archaeological record." Very little archaeological work has been done in the region, and so it is unclear whether the artifacts of the Tiwanaku have simply not been found yet, or whether they were looted and recycled by first the Inca and then the Spanish when they arrived in Potosi in 1545. The data suggest that several thousand tons of silver were produced in pre-Inca times.Returning crusaders brought "Saracen ointment" containing mercury for treating "lepers," an appropriate medication for syphilis but not for leprosy. But the first unambiguous descriptions of syphilis begin around 1500.These may either reflect growing medical knowledge and ability to differentiate syphilis from other diseases or signal its arrival from the New World.
Search for predating holds:
1000, sheet metal working was pervasive throughout the Andes.